Friday, June 18, 2021

Programming: Useful C or C++ Repositories


System Design

Consistent hashing implementation using MD5 & RB trees (C++) - GITHUB link

Message queue implementation (C++) - GITHUB

Hilbert space filling curve implementations (C and others) Link


MIT OCW C Course

Univ Wisconsin Madison OS Course

Saturday, May 8, 2021

WiFi: What is phy restart? Why is it important in dense RF environments?

 Phy restart on radio drivers typically means if the hardware (radio) is able to sync to the preamble of a packet which has a stronger signal strength while it is already in the process of decoding a packet.

This is typically useful in noisy environments to achieve a "capture effect", where the stronger packet is finally decoded at the rx. radio. If the radio does not support PHY restart then typically such a reception would result in a collision on the rx-side at the radio.

Monday, April 26, 2021

Linux: Nagle's Algorithm and How to Disable it

 Nagle's algorithm is a TCP optimization in the kernel stack that waits to aggregate small chunks of bytes before sending packets on a TCP connection. This approach optimizes the amount of frame overhead spent in sending very small packets over the network. However, when the data is fairly sporadic, this could also lead to an increase in the average delay experienced.

Nagle's algorithm running on a host can be disabled by:
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_low_latency

Friday, November 27, 2020

Linux: Applications of kdump or kexec

Why use kdump

You are designing an embedded linux system and you want to ensure that - in general there are no or few crashes. However, it is especially important that when crashes do occur, we are able to collect all the possible dumps.

In the case of kernel crashes, it is especially important to get the entire gdb-like dump to ensure we can check the state of the memory/variables when the issue happens.

How does kdump work - A high level view

It is important to note that in the above sequence, when the crash happens, the crash/capture kernel boots in the context of the main kernel. Since it uses the same file system, we use the same init.d. In the init.d we check which kernel context we are running in e.g. -s vmcore FS to do the dump.
To setup the crash kernel, it is typically passed using command line parameters in the uboot:

crashkernel=256M@1892M ckernel=1

ProTip1: Setting up the crash kernel requires a good knowledge of how the platform is laid out and the memory organization. Sending incorrect parameters, can and likely will cause a lot of unexpected behavior.
ProTip2: Use other advanced options like -pic to give position indepenent code and also ask the SW not to reset the irq lines/controllers.


  1. Kernel documentation on kdump
  2. Red hat kdump crash recovery

Monday, November 23, 2020

Linux: Comma separated arguments in an If Statement

 What happens when you write code like this:

    if ((x,y) == true) {

Is it even a legal condition to put in? If yes, why would you use it?

We have an example you could try out:

bash-4.1$ cat 
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
    int x = 1, y =0;
    if ((x,y) == true) {
        cout << “X TRUE PATH" << endl;
    } else {
        cout << “Y FALSE PATH" << endl;